Glossary of Terms

 

Accounts refers to reports or descriptions. (RI.9-10.7)

Accuracy refers to the ability to read words in text without errors. (RF.1.4, RF.2.4)

Acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence refers to noting information or facts that are not in agreement. (RI.8.6)

Acknowledges and responds to conflicting viewpoints refers to noting viewpoints that are not in agreement. (RI.8.6)

Advancing different interpretations of facts refers to promoting different explanations of the facts. (RI.7.9)

Adventures refers to unusual and/or exciting experiences. (RL.K.9, RL.1.9)

Aesthetic impact refers to the emotional or personal influence of the text on the reader. (RL.11-12.5)

Affixes refers to prefixes and suffixes, which are added to roots or base words to form new words. (RF.4.3, RF.5.3)

Alliteration refers to two or more words that begin with the same sound in a series of words or within a sentence (e.g., two tiny teeth). (RL.2.4, RL.7.4)

Allude refers to making an indirect or passing reference to something in such a way as to suggest a relationship. (RL.4.4, RL.8.9)

Allusions refers to statements that hint at meaning rather than being direct by referring to a well-known object, person, or event in society, history, or another literary work. (RL.4.4. RL.8.4, RL.8.9, RI.8.4)

Alphabet refers to a system of letters in a fixed order that represents the sounds of the language. (RF.K.1)

American literature refers to the written or literary works produced in the United States or its early colonies. (RL.11-12.9)

Analogies refers to rhetorical devices expressing like relationships by comparing one person, thing, situation, or idea to another for the purpose of explanation or clarification. (RL.8.4, RI.8.3, RI.8.4)

Analysis refers to a detailed examination of structures, concepts, or ideas in an information text. (RI.6.1)

Analyze refers to examining in detail for purposes of explanation and/or interpretation. (RL.5.7, RL.6.4, RL.6.5, RL.7.2, RL.7.3, RL.7.6, RL.8.9, RI.5.6, RI.6.5, RI.7.4, RI.7.9)

Analyze the impact refers to examining and explaining the influence of the word choice on meaning and tone. (RL.6.4, RI.7.4)

Analyzing in detail refers to the process of breaking down and examining in smaller parts. (RI.6.3)

Analyzing interactions among elements of a story or drama refers to analyzing relationships between and among characters, their conflicts, events, settings, and plot elements. (RL.7.3)

Analyzing the development of a theme or central idea refers to examining how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details. (RL.7.2, RL.9-10.2, RI.9-10.2)

Anecdotes refer to short, amusing or interesting stories about a person or incident. (RI.6.3)

Answer refers to a statement that is spoken or written in response to a question. (RL.K.1, RL.1.1, RI.K.1, RI.1.1, RI.2.6)

Approaches refers to methods or ways of treating something. (RL.6.9)

Appropriate rate refers to reading at a speed that supports comprehension. (RF.1.4, RF.2.4)

Argument refers to a type of composition intended to persuade or convince the readers to share the same point of view. (RI.11-12.5)

Artistic mediums refers to the materials an artist uses. (RL.9-10.7)

Aspects of a character refers to particular qualities or features (e.g., heroic, fun-loving, serious-minded.) (RL.8.3)

Aspects of a text’s illustrations refers to particular details of an illustration. (RL.3.7)

Assessing refers to evaluating or judging based on criteria. (RI.7.8)

Audio version of a text refers to an account transmitted through sound. (RL.6.7)

Author refers to a person who presents ideas or information in written form. (RI.K.8, RI.1.8)

Author’s choices refers to the decisions an author makes in the development of the text. (RL.7.9, RL.11-12.3)

Author’s point of view refers to the way an author looks at or approaches the topic. (RI.3.6, RI.6.6)

Author’s position refers to the point of view or stance the author takes on a particular topic, event, or issue. (RI.7.6)

Author’s presentation of events refers to the manner or style in which the events are given. (RI.6.9)

Author’s purpose refers to the author’s reason for writing about the topic. (RI.6.6)

Author’s treatment refers to the manner in which the author deals with various literary elements. (RL.4.9)

 

B

Back cover refers to the back of the book. (RI.K.5.)

Basing an explanation on specific information in the text refers to using actual details or facts from the text as a basis for the explanation. (RI.4.3)

Beauty of a text refers to aspects of a text that are pleasing to the senses or minds. (RL.5.7)

Biography refers to an account of someone’s life written by someone else. (RI.6.9)

Blend refers to saying individual sounds together. (RF.K.2)

Blending refers to combining individual sounds together so as to pronounce a word. (RF.1.1)

Bold print refers to a darker, distinct font. (RI.2.5)

 

C

Capitalization refers to the act of writing a word with the initial letter in uppercase form. (RF.1.1)

Captions refers to a short title or explanation for a picture or chart. (RI.2.5)

Cast in a drama refers to the full group of characters in a drama. (RL.4.5)

Categories refers to a class or group of things, people, etc., possessing a common quality, or qualities. (RI.8.3)

Cause/effect
refers to a relationship between actions or events such that one is a result of the other. (RI.3.8)

Cause/effect relationship refers to one that notes the reasons for and/or the consequences of an action, event, or decision. (RI.3.3, RI.4.5)

Central idea refers to the unifying broad idea that ties all of the elements of the text together. (RL.6.2, RI.6.2)

Central message refers to the main point the author wants the reader to take away. (RL.1.2)

Challenges refers to a problem or obstacle presented to the character. (RL.2.3)

Chapter refers to a main division of a book, usually with a number and/or title. (RL.3.5, RL.5.5)

Characters refers to any person, as well as any animal or object with human qualities, in a story. (RL.K.3, RL.1.7, RL.2.6, RL.4.5, RL.5.2)

Character conflict refers to how the character responds or changes as the plot moves toward a resolution. (RL.6.3)

Character feelings refers to the emotional state or response of a character to a situation. (RL.3.3)

Character interaction refers to the details (e.g., thoughts, words, actions, reactions) that emerge when two or more characters meet and respond to one another. (RL.5.3)

Character motivation refers to the reason that a character thinks, feels, or acts in a certain way. (RL.3.3, RL.9-10.3)

Character traits refers to distinguishing features of a character’s personality, including behaviors and attitudes. (RL.3.3)

Chronology refers to a type of text structure characterized by sequence or order of events. (RI.4.5)

Citing textual evidence refers to making direct reference to the passage. (RL.6.1, RI.6.1)

Claim refers to an arguable position statement for a specific interpretation or understanding of a subject. (RI.9-10.5)

Clarify refers to making clear or less confusing. (RI.2.7)

Clarify the meaning of words and phrases refers to providing an explanation that makes the meaning of the word easier to understand. (RI.1.4)

Coherent understanding refers to clear and logical insight or comprehension. (RI.6.7)

Comedic resolution refers to the situation or sequence of events being resolved in a humorous or amusing way. (RL.11-12.5)

Compare and contrast refers to noting similarities and differences. (RL.K.9, RL.4.6, RL.5.3, RL.6.7, RL.8.5, RI.1.9, RI.2.9, RI.4.6, RI.5.5, RI.7.7)

Comparison (Grade 3-4) refers to noting similarities between two or more things. (RI.3.8, RI.4.5)

Comparisons (Grade 8) refers to an examination of common characteristics between individuals, ideas, or events. (RI.8.3)

Complex analysis of a text
refers to a careful and thorough examination of the development of its central ideas, including how they interact and build on one another over the course of the text. (RI.11-12.2)

Complex characters refers to multi-dimensional characters whose personality, background, motives, and other features are fully delineated. (RL.9-10.3)

Complex set of ideas refers to a group of ideas consisting of many different and connected parts. (RI.11-12.3)

Comprehension refers to constructing or deriving meaning from the text; understanding what is read. (RF.1.4, RF.2.4)

Concepts refers to broad, abstract ideas. (RI.4.5)

Confirm refers to establishing correctness in word recognition or understanding. (RF.1.4, RF.2.4)

Conflicting evidence or viewpoints refers to evidence or viewpoints that are not in agreement. (RI.8.6)

Conflicting information refers to contradictory information or information in disagreement. (RI.8.9)

Conflicting motivations refers to motivations that are in opposition to one another (e.g., loyalty vs. legality, fairness vs. desire to win). (RL.9-10.3)

Connection refers to a relationship or having something in common. (RI.K.3, RI.1.3)

Connotative meaning refers to the implied or suggestive meaning of a word, including the emotions and associations connected to a word. (RL.6.4, RI.6.4)

Consonant blends refers to two or more side-by-side consonants pronounced rapidly in which you can hear the individual sounds. (RF.1.1)

Constitutional principles refers to principles relating to the Constitution. (RI.11-12.8)

Context refers to parts of a sentence or several sentences surrounding an unfamiliar word that provide information (e.g., through the use of a definition, synonym, antonym, or example) to assist in determining its meaning. (RF.1.4, RF.2.4)

Contribute refers to adding to or supplying more. (RL.3.3, RI.2.7)

Conveyed refers to the way it is communicated. (RI.6.2, RI.6.6)

Culture refers to the customs, arts, social institutions, or achievements of a particular group of people. (RL.2.9)

Cultural experience refers to an experience in the arts, humanities, or customs unique to a particular group of people. (RL.9-10.6)

Cumulative impact refers to the collective effect that results from specific word choices. (RL.9-10.4, RI.9-10.4)

 

D

Decoding refers to using the sound-symbol relationships, including knowledge of letter patterns to correctly pronounce words. (RF.K.3)

Delineate refers to describing precisely. (RI.8.8)

Departs from refers to a production that differs from the text or script version of a story. (RL.8.7)

Derivational suffixes refers to suffixes that change the meaning of the original word (e.g., mind > mindful, care>careless). (RF.3.3)

Describe refers to giving an account that includes all the relevant features (not features, but information in informational texts). (RL.1.3, RL.5.6, RI.K.3, RI.1.3, RI.2.6, RI.2.8)

Descriptions refers to an account that includes all the relevant features or characteristics. (RI.K.9, RI.1.9)

Descriptions in a drama refers to providing more information for the actors or director. (RL.4.5)

Details (Informational) refers to information, features, or characteristics that explain more about the ideas in a text. (RI.1.7, RI.4.1)

Details (Literature) refers to particular pieces of information in a text. (RL.1.7, RL.4.1)

Details and examples refers to forms of evidence from a text. (RI.4.1)

Determine the meaning of words and phrases refers to establishing the appropriate definition. (RI.1.4)

Development of ideas refers to how ideas grow or change. (RI.6.5)

Dialogue refers to the conversation between two or more characters. (RL.2.6)

Dialogue in a drama refers to the conversation between two or more characters. (RL.4.5)

Differences refers to the quality of being unlike. (RI.K.9, RI.1.9)

Different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) refers to different ways to communicate or transmit information. (RI.6.7)

Digital text refers to an electronic version of a print text. (RL.2.7)

Digraph refers to a pair of letters that represents one sound; neither letter acts alone to represent the sound (e.g., sh, ch, th). (RF.1.3)

Director or actors’ choice refers to any decision the director or actors make in presentation of a story. (RL.8.7)

Distinctions refers to a difference, contrast, or unlikeness between individuals, ideas, or events. (RI.8.3)

Distinguish(ing) refers to pointing out the differences. (RF.K.3, RF.1.2, RL.3.4, RL.3.6, RI.1.6, RI.3.6, RI.6.8)

Diverse cultures refers to different customs or behaviors typical of a particular social group of people. (RL.2.2)

Domain-specific words and phrases refers to vocabulary specific to a particular field of study (domain), such as the human body. (RI.3.4)

Drama refers to a story about people and events intended to be performed by actors for an audience. (RL.4.2, RL.4.3, RL.6.7)

Dramatic form and structure refers to the physical aspects of drama such as soliloquy, monologue, scene, and act. (RL.7.5)

Dramatic irony refers to when the full significance of the words or actions of the characters are clear to the audience or reader although unknown to the characters. (RL.8.6)

Drawing inferences refers to combining clues from the text and information from your prior knowledge to draw a logical conclusion or interpretation from the text. (RL.4.1, RI.4.1)

 

E

Efficiently refers to performing in the best possible manner without wasted effort. (RI.2.5)

Electronic menus refers to a list of options that link to electronic information. (RI.1.5)

Emerges refers to becoming apparent or revealed. (RL.9-10.2, RI.9-10.2)

Emphasizing different evidence refers to giving special importance to one piece of evidence over another. (RI.7.9)

Ending punctuation refers to the use of marks (e.g., period, question mark, exclamation mark) to close or separate sentences. (RF.1.1)

Episode (in a story or drama) refers to an event or several events that relate to each other. (RL.6.3)

Evaluate refers to assessing or judging based on criteria. (RI.6.8, RI.8.7, RI.11-12.5)

Evaluating refers to judging or determining the significance, worth, or quality of. (RL.8.7)

Events refers to things that happen in the story (text in informational). (RL.1.7, RL.5.6, RI.4.5)

Evidence refers to information that supports a conclusion or judgment. (RI.4.8)

Examples refers to illustrations, models, samples, and instances that make ideas in a text more clear. (RL.4.1, RI.4.1)

Experiences refers to happenings or events. (RL.K.9, RL.1.9)

Explain(ing) refers to making an idea clear by describing it, using relevant facts or details. (RL.1.5, RL.3.2, RL.3.3, RL.4.1, RL.6.6, RI.2.6, RI.2.7, RI.3.2, RI.4.1, RI. 4.3, RI.4.8)

Exposition refers to a type of composition intended to explain or provide information about events, ideas, or concepts. (RI.11-12.5)

 

F

Fable refers to a short story, usually with animals as characters, which passes on a moral. (RL.2.2)

Faithful to refers to a production that remains close to the text or script version of a story. (RL.8.7)

Fallacious reasoning refers to reasoning based on mistaken beliefs. (RI.9-10.8)

False statements refers to statements that are not true. (RI.9-10.8)

Familiar stories refers to those stories that are well known and easily recognized. (RL.K.9)

Fiction refers to works of literature written about imaginary people and events. (RL.5.7)

Fictional portrayal refers to an imaginary representation of a particular time, place, or character. (RL.7.9)

Figurative language refers to words or phrases that depart from the literal meaning through the use of exaggeration, comparison, or humor to create a special effect or emphasis. (RL.5.4)

Figurative meaning refers to the nonliteral meaning achieved through the use of exaggeration, comparison, or humor to create a special effect or emphasis. (RI.6.4)

Filmed production refers to the creation of a story on film. (RL.8.7)

Final sound refers to the last consonant sound in a CVC word. (RF.K.2)

Firsthand account refers to a report from the original source or personal experience. (RI.4.6)

First-person narration refers to a story being told from the point of view of a character in the story. (RL.4.6)

First word refers to the first word in a sentence. (RF.1.1)

Flashbacks refers to an event that breaks the chronological order by returning to an event that occurred earlier in time. (RL.9-10.5 )

Fluency refers to being able to read orally with a reasonable rate of speed, sufficient accuracy, and appropriate expression. (RF.1.4, RF.2.4)

Focus refers to the perspective or point of view. (RI.4.6)

Focus of a paragraph refers to the topic of the paragraph. (RI.2.2)

Folktale refers to a short story, which usually relates a lesson. (RL.2.2, RL.5.7)

Formal tone refers to using Standard English without the use of slang. (RL.9-10.4)

Forms refers to broad organizational structures. (RL.6.9)

Foundational U.S. documents refers to documents written to provide the foundation on which the country and its principles are built. (RI.11-12.9)

Front cover refers to the front of the book. (RI.K.5)

 

G

General academic words and phrases refers to vocabulary common to written texts but not commonly a part of speech; they represent subtle or precise ways to say simple things. (RI.3.4)

Genre refers to a type or category of literature characterized by a particular style, form, or content. (RL.5.9)

Glossaries refers to an alphabetical list of subject related words with definitions that is usually located at the back of the text. (RI.1.5)

Graphic novel refers to a novel in which the story is told through a combination of text and art, often in comic-strip form. (RL.5.7)

 

H

Headings refers to the title of a section of text that indicates the topic of the section. (RI.1.5)

Historical account refers to a report or description of people, places, and events in history. (RL.7.9)

Historical fiction refers to an account based on historical people, places, and/or events, but may not stay true to history in every way. (RL.7.9)

How an individual, event, or idea is elaborated in a text refers to the way the author develops an individual, event, or idea with details. (RI.6.3)

How an individual, event, or idea is illustrated in a text refers to the way the author uses examples or visuals (e.g., pictures, photos, graphics) to convey information. (RI.6.3)

How an individual, event, or idea is introduced in a text refers to the way the author brings them to the readers’ attention for the first time. (RI.6.3)

How characters in a story respond refers to the way they react or deal with major events and challenges. (RL.2.3)

How questions refers to elaborating on details about characters, setting, and plot in a text. (RL.2.1)

How questions refers to elaborating on details about people, location, and time elements in a text. (RI.2.1)

Humor refers to the quality of being amusing or comical. (RL.8.6)

Hyperlinks refers to a search tool consisting of graphics or underlined chunks of text on a website or in an electronic document that link to another web page or website. (RI.3.5)

 

I

Icons refers to a symbol, sign, or small picture on a computer screen that is used to link to electronic information. (RI.1.5)

Ideas refers to a concept, an opinion, a thought, a belief, or a plan. (RI.1.7)

Identify refers to recognizing and/or naming someone or something. (RL.K.3, RL.1.4, RL.1.6, RI.K.2, RI.K.8, RI.1.2, RI.1.8)

Illustrations refers to the pictures that provide a visual representation of some part of the story. (Literature) (RL.K.7)

Illustrations refers to the pictures, drawings, or visual aids that provide a visual representation of some part of the text. (Informational) (RI.K.7, RI.K.9, RI.1.6, RI.1.9)

Images (e.g., diagram, photo) refers to visible representations. RI.2.7)

Impact refers to the influence or effect that one person, thing, or action has on another. (RL.11-12.3, RI.7.7)

Important points refers to significant ideas, opinions, or pieces of information. (RI.2.9)

In depth refers to describing or explaining using specific details. (RL.4.3)

Incidents in a story or drama refers to distinct actions or occurrences. (RL.8.3)

Indexes refers to an alphabetical listing of key words or names and the page numbers where they can be found in the text. (RI.2.5)

Informal tone refers to using a casual, conversational speech that may include the use of slang. (RL.9-10-4)

Initial sound refers to the first consonant sound in a CVC word. (RF.K.2)

Integrate refers to combining information from different texts into a coherent understanding about the subject. (RI.4.9, RI.6.7, RI.11-12.7)

Interact refers to places where two or more elements come together or relate in a way that is significant to the story. (RL.7.3)

Interactions refers to actions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in the text. (RI.5.3)

Interpret refers to determining the significance of information according to one’s own understanding. (RI.4.7)

Irrelevant evidence refers to evidence that is not closely connected and/or appropriate to the matter. (RI.8.8)

Irony refers to a situation, statement, or circumstance that is not as it would actually seem. (RL.11-12.6)

Irregularly spelled words refers to words that are not spelled as they sound (e.g., above, country, again). (RF.1.3)

Irrelevant evidence refers to evidence that is not closely connected and/or appropriate to the matter. (RI.8.8)

Isolate refers to identifying and examining sounds separately. (RF.K.2)

Issue refers to a problem or difficulty. (RI.6.7)

 

K

Key concept refers to a broad, abstract idea essential to the topic. (RI.8.5)

Key details refers to significant pieces of information related to the important points in a text. (RL.K.1, RL.K.2, RL.1.1, RL.1.3, RI.K.1, RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.3.9)

Key ideas refers to the most important ideas. (RI.1.7)

Key scene refers to an important place within the story where an action or event occurs. (RL.9-10.7)

Key term refers to a significant word related to the topic. (RI.11-12.4)

Key words refers to a search tool used to find websites with information related to those words. (RI.3.5)

 

L

Latin suffixes refers to suffixes taken from the Latin language (e.g., -able, -hood, -some). (RF.3.3)

Legal reasoning refers to reasoning based of the principles of law. (RI.11-12.8)

Lesson refers to something learned from a story. (RL.1.2)

Lines of dialogue refers to the words spoken by a character in a story or drama. (RL.8.3)

Literal meaning of a word or phrase refers to its common or usual meaning. (RL.3.4)

Literary analysis refers to a detailed examination of the important literary concepts. (RL.6.1)

Literary comparison refers to explaining the similarities and differences between two or more works of literature and the significance of the comparison. (RL.11-12.9)

Live production refers to the creation of a story for a live audience on a stage or by digital means. (RL.8.7)

Live version of a text refers to an account transmitted through actors’ presentations in real time. (RL.6.7)

Logical connection refers to a reasonable relationship. (RI.3.8)

Lowercase letters refers to the smaller form of the letters in the alphabet. (RF.K.1)

 

M

Main idea of a text refers to the most important or central thought of a text. (RI.3.2)

Main purpose refers to the most important reason. (RI.2.6)

Main topic refers to the primary subject or focus of a text. (RI.K.2, RI.1.2)

Major events refers to the important things that happen in the story. (RL.K.3)

Major sections of text refers to large divisions of the text. (RI.7.5)

Medial vowel sound refers to the vowel sound between the initial and final consonant sounds in a CVC word. (RF.K.2)

Medium refers to a way in which information is communicated (e.g., print text, digital text, audio, video, filmed, staged, multimedia). (RL.7.7, RI.7.7)

Memoir refers to a historical account written from personal knowledge of the person or subject. (RI.6.9)

Metaphor refers to a figure of speech in which a word or a phrase that ordinarily denotes one thing is applied to another in an implicit comparison. (RL.5.4)

Meter refers to a pattern of accents or beats in a poem. (RL.4.5)

Mood (in literature) refers to a feeling the reader gets from the illustrations or words in a story. (RL.3.7)

Moral refers to a lesson to be learned from a story. (RL.2.2, RL.3.7)

Multimedia elements refers to any aspects that may be seen or heard during a presentation of a text. (RL5.7)

Multimedia version refers to one that uses more than one medium to communicate (e.g., audio and video). (RL.7.7, RI.7.7)

Multiparagraph text refers to a text that has several paragraphs. (RI.2.2)

Multiple accounts refers to descriptions of the same event or topic by two or more authors. (RI.5.6)

Multiple interpretations refers to various depictions or renderings of a story, drama, or poem. (RL.11-12.7)

Multisyllable words refers to words with more than one syllable. (RF.3.3)

Mystery refers to a quality in a work of fiction that arouses excited expectation or uncertainlty about what might happen. (RL.9-10.5)

Mythology refers to a collection of stories of a particular religious or cultural tradition that focus on its origin, history, deities, ancestors, and heroes. (RL.4.4)

Myths refers to traditional stories of the distant past that usually explain a natural or social phenomenon. (RL.3.2, RL.4.9, RL.5.7)

 

N

Narrator refers to the person or character who is telling the story. (RL.3.6)

Narrator’s point of view refers to the attitude of the narrator, including how the narrator thinks or feels about a character or event in a story. (RL.3.6)

Nonliteral meaning of a word or phrase refers to one that is altered from its usual meaning. (RL.3.4)

 

O

Objective summary refers to a summary free from personal feelings, opinions, or judgments. (RL.7.2, RI.7.2)

One-syllable words refers to words that consist of a vowel sound and may include consonant sound(s) before and/or after the vowel. (RF.1.3)

Onset refers to the initial sound(s) before the vowel sound in single-syllable words. (RF.K.2)

Opinion refers to a view or judgment not always based on factual knowledge. (RL.6.2)

Oral presentation refers to any presentation conveyed through spoken words. (RL.4.7)

Overall structure refers to the definable way the story as a whole is organized. (RL.2.5)

Own point of view refers to the attitude of the reader, including how the reader thinks or feels about a character or event in a story. (RL.3.6)

 

P

Pacing in literature refers to the author’s manipulation of time, the slowing down and speeding up of the plot. (RL.9-10.5)

Parallel plots refers to a secondary plot line that is usually linked to the main plot by character or theme. (RL.9-10.5)

Patterns of events refers to particular arrangements of events that move the plot toward resolution and develop the theme. (RL.4.9, RL.8.9)

Perceive refers to becoming aware of something through the use of one or more of the senses. (RL.6.7)

Personal judgments refers to subjective conclusions not always based on factual knowledge. (RI.6.2)

Personal opinions refers to a viewpoint that is not always based on factual knowledge. (RI.6.2)

Phrases refers to small groups of words that together form one concept. (RL.1.4, RI.1.4)

Plot refers to the main story that unfolds in a series of events or episodes. (RI.2.7, RL.3.9, RL.6.3, RL.6.5, RL.8.2)

Poem refers to a collection of words that express an experience, emotion, or idea, sometimes with a specific rhythm and/or structure. (RL.K.5, RL.4.2, RL.5.7)

Poetic form and structure refers to the physical aspects of the poem such as free verse, ballad, haiku, and sonnet. (RL.7.5)

Poetry refers to literary works written with a distinctive style and rhythm. (RF.3.4, RF.4.4, RF.5.5)

Points refers to ideas, opinions, or claims. (RI.K.8, RI.1.8)

Point of view refers to the position from which a topic is being considered. (RI.3.6)

Points of view of characters refers to the attitudes of the characters, including how the characters think or feel about something or each other. (RL.2.6)

Portrayal refers to a description or representation of a subject in a certain way. (RI.7.7)

Prefix refers to a group of letters placed at the beginning of a root or base word that partly indicates the meaning. (RF.2.3)

Premises refers to previous statements or assertions from which another is inferred or follows as a conclusion. (RI.11-12.8)

Problem/solution refers to the introduction of a problem followed by a solution. (RI.4.5)

Procedures refers to a series of steps that build on one another and lead to an outcome. (RI.K.9, RI.1.9)

Pronounce refers to saying the sound correctly. (RF.K.2)

Propel the action refers to moving the plot forward. (RL.8.3)

Prose refers to writing in its ordinary form or structure, using sentences and paragraphs; a style of writing that uses the same features as spoken language. (RF.3.4, RF.4.4, RF.5.4)

Provoke a decision refers to forcing an action or conclusion. (RL.8.3)

Public advocacy refers to public support for a particular cause or policy. (RI.11-12.8)

Purpose refers to the reason for reading the text. (RF.K.4)

 

Q

Quantitatively refers to a description or measurement involving a number or numerical value. (RI.4.7, RI.11-12.7)

Questions refers to sentences that are worded to draw out a response or answer. (RL.K.1, RL.1.1, RI.K.1, RI.1.1)

Quote accurately refers to matching the source document word for word. (RL.5.1, RI.5.1)

 

R

Reading refers to the process of decoding written text in order to obtain or construct meaning. (RF.K.4)

Reading with expression refers to using pitch, tone, phrasing, and volume appropriately when reading. (RF.1.4, RF.2.4)

Reasons refers to causes or explanations. (RI.K.8, RI.1.8, RI.4.8)

Reasoning refers to using information to arrive at a conclusion. (RI.7.8)

Recount refers to retelling a story in sequential order. (Literature) (RL.2.2)

Recount refers to retelling the key details. (Informational) (RI.3.2)

referring explicitly to the text refers to directing others to a specific place in the text. (RL.3.1, RI.3.1)

Refined refers to being improved by subtle, small changes. (RL.9-10.2, RI.9-10.2)

Refines the meaning refers to making small or subtle changes to make the meaning more clear or precise. (RI.11-12.4)

Refining refers to making small changes for the sake of clarity or precision. (RI.8.5)

Relationship refers to the way in which two items are connected. (RI.3.3)

Relevant refers to information that is important to a particular topic. (RI.3.5)

Relevant evidence refers to evidence that is closely connected and/or appropriate to the claim. (RI.7.8)

Rendered new refers to being depicted in a fresh or original way. (RL.8.9)

Resolution refers to a final outcome of a situation or sequence of events that usually occurs near the final stages of the plot. (RL.6.3, RL.11-12.5)

Retell (RL) refers to telling the story in sequential order, including the key details. (RL.K.2, RL.1.2)

Retell (RI) refers to repeating the key details. (RI.K.2, RI.1.2)

Rhetoric refers to the art of using language effectively or persuasively. (RI.9-10.6, RI.11-12.6)

Rhetorical features refers to a use of words in a certain way to inform, persuade, or evoke emotion. (RI.11-12.9)

Rhymes refers to words and phrases that have similar sounds at the end (e.g., hot/spot, plum/thumb). (RL.2.4, RL.7.4)

Rhyming words refers to two or more words that sound the same in the middle and at the end. (RF.K.2)

Rhythm refers to a repeating pattern of sound in a poem. (RL.4.5)

Rhythm in a story, poem, or song refers to repeated patterns of sound. (RL.2.4)

Rime refers to the first vowel sound and consonant sound(s) that follow in single-syllable words. (RF.K.2)

Role refers to a responsibility or job. (RL.K.5, RI.K.6)

Roots refers to Greek or Latin meaning units to which prefixes and suffixes are added; most roots are not complete words (e.g. spect, trans). (RF.4.3, RF.5.3)

 

S

Sarcasm refers to use of irony to mock or convey disgust. (RL.11-12.6)

Satire refers to the use of exaggeration or ridicule to expose people’s stupidity. (RL.11-12.6)

Scene(s) refers to a division of a drama, usually where the setting is fixed, time is continuous, and the characters remain the same. (RL.3.5, RL.5.5)

Scientific ideas or concepts refers to a widely accepted principle in the field of science. (RI.2.3)

Search tools refers to ways to locate information on the Internet. (RI.3.5)

Secondhand account refers to a report coming from a source other than the original or experienced only indirectly through other people. (RI.4.6)

Segment refers to separating words into syllables and/or individual sounds. (RF.K.2, RF.2.4)

Self-correct refers to fixing an error in word recognition or understanding. (RF.1.4, RF.2.4)

Seminal U.S. texts/documents refers to original and influential texts/documents of historical and literary significance. (RI.9-10.9, RI.11-12.8)

Sentence refers to a set of words that conveys a complete thought. (RF.1.1)

Sequence refers to a particular order or arrangement of objects or events, one coming after the other. (RI.3.3, RI.3.8)

Series of historical events refers to a number of important events in history that are related in some way. (RI.2.3)

Setting refers to the time, time period (e.g., present, “once upon a time”), and location in which a story takes place. (RL.K.3, RL.1.1, RL.4.5, RL.6.5, RL.8.2)

Settings refers to the general location, time, time period, and social circumstances in which the story appears. (RL.3.9)

Shaped refers to being formed or developed. (RL.9-10.2, RI.9-10.2)

Sidebars refers to a search tool consisting of small boxes of additional information, which may be related to the topic, located along the sides of the pages of a website. (RI.3.5)

Similarities refers to the quality of being the same or alike, but not identical. (RI.K.9, RI.1.9)

Similes refers to a figure of speech in which two different things are compared by using either like or as. (RL.5.4)

Situational irony refers to when something happens that is a reversal of what is expected. Unlike dramatic irony, both the reader and the characters are aware of the irony. (RL.8.6)

Soliloquy refers to a part of a drama where one actor speaks his/her thoughts out loud.

Sonnet refers to a poem of fourteen lines using any of a number of formal rhyme schemes, in English typically having ten syllables per line. (RL.7.5)

Sound reasoning refers to reasoning that is logical, plausible, and valid. (RI.7.8)

Sounds refers to the basic units of speech. (RF.K.2)

Source material refers to original material. (RL.9-10.9)

Source text refers to the point of origin for the text. (RL.11-12.7)

Speaker in a poem refers to a person the reader is supposed to imagine is speaking; the speaker is not the poet. (RL.5.2)

Speaker’s point of view refers to the attitude of the speaker, including how the speaker things or feels about a character or event in a story. (RL.5.6)

Stage directions in a drama refers to instructions to the actors or director that describe an action in the play. (RL.4.5, RL.4.7)

Stanza(s) refers to a group of lines in a poem, usually characterized by a common pattern of meter, rhyme, and number of lines. (RL.3.5, RL.5.5)

Story refers to a tale of imaginary or real people or events told for entertainment. (RL.K.7)

Storybook refers to a type of text that recounts fictional or real events. (RL.K.5)

Style refers to the unique manner in which an author uses language (e.g., words, figurative language, diction, syntax) to fit a specific context or purpose. (RL.8.5)

Subheadings refers to a title for a smaller section of text. (RI.2.5)

Subject refers to a person or thing being discussed or described. (RL.9-10.7)

Substitute refers to putting one sound in place of another. (RF.K.2)

Sufficient evident refers to an adequate amount of evidence. (RI.7.8)

Suffix refers to a letter or group of letters placed at the end of a root or base word that partly indicates the meaning. (RF.2.3)

Summarize refers to condensing or shortening a text to include only the most important points. (RL.4.2, RI.4.2)

Summary refers to a shorter version of the text that includes the main idea and key supporting details. RI.4.2)

Suspense refers to the quality of building a sense of apprehension or excitement of what is about to happen. (RL.8.6)

Syllables refers to at least a vowel sound and may include a consonant sound(s) before and/or after the vowel. (RF.K.2)

Syllabication refers to the process of analyzing words and breaking them into syllables based on the pattern of vowels and consonants in the word. (RF.4.3, RF.5.3)

Syllabication patterns refers to the basic written syllable patterns. (RF.4.3, RF.5.3)

 

T

Tables of contents refers to the titles and page numbers of sections and/or chapters of a text. (RI.1.5)

Technical meaning refers to the full definition of a word or phrase when looked up in the dictionary or as defined by a law or statute. (RI.6.4)

Technical procedures refers to a series of steps in a process that build on one another and lead to an outcome. (RI.2.3)

Techniques refers to specialized procedures and methods (e.g., lighting, sound, color, camera, focus, and angles in a film). (RL.7.7)

Tension refers to the interplay of opposing elements in a piece of literature. (RL.9-10.5)

Text features refers to elements of informational texts that assist the reader in locating and learning information. (RI.1.5)

Text structure (Kindergarten) refers to the way a text is organized. (RL.K.5)

Text structure (Grade 4) refers to the organizational pattern used to present ideas or information in a text. (RI.4.5)

Theme refers to a universal message, truth, moral, or idea about life, society, or human nature repeated through many different stories, dramas, or poems. (RL.6.5)

Themes refers to the central idea or the underlying point that unifies the entire story expressed directly or indirectly. (RL.3.9, RL.4.2, RL.4.9)

Third-person narration refers to the story being told from the point of view of an outsider looking into the story referring to all the characters by name or a third person pronoun. (RL.4.6)

Thorough textual evidence refers to all the textual evidence that supports an analysis of the text. (RL.9-10.1. RI.9-10.1)

Title page refers to a page at the beginning of a book that names the title, author, and illustrator of the book. (RI.K.5)

To influence an event refers to having an effect on the development or outcome of an event. (RI.7.3)

To influence an individual refers to having an effect on the character, development, or behavior of an individual. (RI.7.3)

Tone refers to a particular feeling or attitude created purposefully by the author. (RL.5.7, RL.6.4, RI.7.4)

Topic refers to a subject or focus of a text. (RL.4.9, RL.5.2, RI.K.9, RI.1.9, RI.6.7)

Trace refers to finding or describing the origin and development. (RI.6.8)

Traditional literature refers to a genre that includes folk tales, tall tales, fables, proverbs, legends, nursery rhymes, and fairy tales. (RL.4.9)

Tragic resolution refers to the situation or sequence of events being resolved in a distressful or sorrowful way. (RL.11-12.5)

Transforms refers to making a thorough or dramatic change. (RL.9-10.9)

Treatment refers to the way a scene is represented. (RL.9-10.7)

 

U

Uncertain matters refers to those events or situations that are not clearly described or defined in the text. (RL.11-12.1, RI.11-12.1)

Understanding refers to comprehending what is read. (RF.K.4)

Understatement refers to representing something smaller or less important than it really is. (RL.11-12.6)

Unknown words refers to words that are not familiar to the reader. (RL.K.4, RI.K.4)

Uppercase letters refers to the capital letters in the alphabet. (RL.K.1)

 

V

Validity refers to the quality of being logically or factually sound. (RI.9-10.8)

Verbal irony refers to when a character says one thing and means another. (RL.8.6)

Verse refers to a group of lines that form one unit of a poem. (RL.4.5)

Verse or stanza refers to a group of lines in a poem or song, usually made up of our or more lines and often having a regular pattern in meter and rhythm. (RL.7.4)

Version(s) refers to variations of an original story. (RL.2.9, RL.4.7)

Video version of a text refers to an account transmitted through visual images. (RL.6.7)

Visual elements refers to aspects that illustrate the meaning or tone and contribute to the beauty of a text. (RL.5.7)

Visual presentation refers to any presentation conveyed through images. (RL.4.7)

 

W

What questions refers to drawing out details about a topic. (RI.2.1)

What questions refers to drawing out details about plot. (RL.2.1)

When questions refers to drawing out details about time elements. (RL.2.1, RI.2.1)

Where questions refers to drawing out details about a location. (RI.2.1)

Where questions refers to drawing out details about setting. (RL.2.1)

Who questions refers to drawing out details about characters. (RL.2.1)

Who questions refers to drawing out details about people. (RI.2.1)

Why questions refers to elaborating on details about characters, setting, and plot. (RL.2.1)

Why questions refers to elaborating on details about people, location, and time elements in a text. (RI.2.1)

Word choice refers to impacting meaning and tone. (RI.7.4)

Words refers to specific combinations of written letters that represent a spoken word. (RF.K.1)